Islamist rebel Ahmad al-Mahdi pled guilty at the ICC to intentionally directing attacks against historical monuments and buildings dedicated to religion in the UNESCO-protected city of Timbuktu, northern Mali. Sentenced to nine years' imprisonment
In July 2012, Mali referred the situation in its territory to the ICC in response to an armed conflict in the north between government forces and various rebel groups. The ICC preliminary examination led the ICC to formally open an investigation.
Congolese rebel leader Germain Katanga was convicted by the ICC in March 2014 of war crimes and crimes against humanity during an attack against Bogoro village in Ituri in eastern DRC. Sentenced to 12 year imprisonment.
Former Congolese vice-president and militia leader Jean-Pierre Bemba was convicted by the ICC in 2016 for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Central African Republic. Sentenced to 18 years’ imprisonment. Reparations pending.